Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight.Daylighting (using windows, skylights, or light shelves) is sometimes used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings.
Proper lighting can enhance task performance, improve the appearance of an area, or have positive psychological effects on occupants.
Indoor lighting is usually accomplished using light fixtures, and is a key part of interior design.
Lighting can also be an intrinsic component of landscape projects.
With the discovery of fire, the earliest form of artificial lighting used to illuminate an area were campfires or torches.
It could be stored indefinitely unlike whale oil, which would eventually spoil. By the end of the decade there were 30 kerosene plants operating in the United States.
The cheaper, more efficient fuel began to drive whale oil out of the market. Rockefeller was most responsible for the commercial success of kerosene.
He set up a network of kerosene distilleries which would later become Standard Oil, thus completely abolishing the need for whale-oil lamps.
Gas lighting was economical enough to power street lights in major cities starting in the early 1800s, and was also used in some commercial buildings and in the homes of wealthy people.
As early as 400,000 BCE, fire was kindled in the caves of Peking Man.