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Iodine is the second least reactive of the halogens, and the second most electropositive halogen. Iodide (I) are the only thermodynamically stable, inorganic forms in water.Iodine naturally occurs in the environment chiefly as a dissolved iodide in seawater, although it is also found in some minerals and soils. In solution, these forms behave mostly conservatively, much like Br and Cl.

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Other minor sources include iodine volatilized from plants or derived from their organic degradation, and iodine upwelling from deeply sourced groundwaters.

Iodine has one stable isotope and one comsogenic/anthropogenic isotope.

I is measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), available at only a few laboratories in the worldwide.

Iodine (I-) Iodine is present in sea water at around 50 μg/l and concentrations in rain and river waters are typically an order of magnitude lower than this.

Much higher concentrations are found and with relative enrichment respective to seawater in some marine formation waters.

The concentrations of iodine also decrease relative to Cl and in absolute terms with increasing continentality; this factor is important in considering iodine depletion and health issues (goiter occurrence) (Fuge, 1989).Iodine in groundwaters generally behaves similarly to Cl and Br, whereas F may show an increase due water-rick interaction.Iodine will increase relative to Cl only in brackish or saline water such as oilfield brines which have had prolonged reaction with organic matter.Iodine Isotopes I has been used for estimating groundwater residence times in very specialized applications such as tracing brine migration, identification of hydrocarbon source rocks, and as a tracer of radioactive contaminant plumes.Its long half-life extends the opportunity to date groundwater to 80 million years, but some limitations must be considered: I, the cosmogenic isotope, can be used to date groundwaters from 3 million to 80 milllion years old and trace groundwater flow.Cost of Analysis | Origin | Measurement Techniques | Hydrological Applications | References and Further Reading | Internet Resources I also has occurred by accident.


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