What counts is not what sounds plausible, not what we would like to believe, not what one or two witnesses claim, but only what is supported by hard evidence rigorously and skeptically examined. 2- University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. The application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of human evolution.
Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. 3- Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece.
1- Mc Gill University Health Centre, Division of Infectious Diseases, Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Christos Karatzios participated in the design of the article. Triantaphyllidis, e-mail: [email protected] Cosigner and author of the editorial: George P. published five papers making the claim of a Sub-Saharan African origin for Greeks. essentially published copies of Arnaiz-Villena's studies using the same methods, and data sets.
World leading geneticists have rejected Arnaiz-Villena's methodology (the primary defect is that they relied on too few genetic markers to reliably compare populations).
Numerous studies using proper methodology and multiple genetic markers are presented, showing that Greeks cluster genetically with the rest of the Europeans, disproving Arnaiz-Villena's claims.
History, as well as genetics, have been misused by Arnaiz-Villena's (and by extension Hajjej's) unprofessional statements and by their omissions and misquotations of scientific and historical citations.
The Japanese appear to cluster with Africans and Italians iii. Phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of genetic distances based on HLA-DRB1 allele frequencies. (2003) , again using two genetic markers (HLA-DR, and -DQ), constructed a dendrogram (FIG. Here the Vardar Slavs are shown to have the closest genetic distance with Bulgarians. Please note this dendrogram yields low confidence limits (bootstrap values) in most cases. Therefore the above findings in addition to Arnaiz-Villena's are of low scientific merit. Still, none of those studies are acceptable from the population genetics perspective because they use faulty methodology. Allele and haplotype frequencies for HLA loci in various ethnic groups. Genetic diversity of HLA: Functional and medical implication.
African genes are present in numerous non-African populations iv. Samples from FYROM, Greece and Croatia cluster together. Dendrogram constructed on the basis of genetic distances based on HLA-A, - B, -DRB1 and DQ allele frequencies. Please note this dendrogram yields low confidence limits (bootstrap values) in most cases. 6) showing the Vardar Slavs to have the closest genetic distance with Bulgarians, while the Cretan Greeks are placed genetically very far away. Still however, none of those studies' dendrograms or correspondence analysis are acceptable from the population genetics perspective because they use faulty methodology. There is actually a single dendrogram from Hajjej A. (2006b) , where they analysed Greeks using slightly different methodology from Arnaiz-Villena: they used 3 genes (HLA-A, -B and -DRB1), (FIG. However, in this dendrogram the Greeks appear to cluster with the Cretan Greeks, Vardar Slavs and Rimaibe (Sub-Saharans). Theoretical work suggests that data from multiple loci provide better estimates of population genetic parameters, than do single loci.
Misquoted Data Dörk does not support Arnaiz-Villena Greeks Cluster Genetically with other Europeans The African Origins of all Humans Arnaiz-Villena's Answer to his Critics Proposed Retractions III. Dendogram constructed on the basis of genetic distances based on HLA-DRB1 allele frequencies. (2001b)  examined the genetic relationships of Palestinians with other Mediterranean populations. The results from the above two studies are contrary to Arnaiz-Villena's. 5) by using results from four genetic markers (HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ), showing the Greeks to cluster with the Italians. This contradicts Arnaiz-Villena's conclusion that the Vardar Slavs are genetically very close to Cretan Greeks [1,4,5,7]. The following studies repeated what Arnaiz-Villena had already done: Same data and same methodology; therefore, the same results were obtained. Single locus gene studies are inappropriate for population genetics.
HISTORY Arnaiz-Villena's Misquotations of Ancient Sources Citations of Modern Sources in Support of Inaccuracies Inaccurate Statements Without Ancient Documentation Contradictory Statements on History IV. They made exactly the same claims about the relatedness of Vardar Slavs to Cretan Greeks, and they showed that the Greeks and Japanese cluster with various Sub-Saharan Africans. If all these studies are correct, then are Vardar Slavs and Greeks related [9,10] or not [1,4,5,6,7] ? This contradicts Arnaiz-Villena's conclusion that the Greeks cluster with Sub-Saharans and not with Mediterraneans [1,4,5,6,7]. This has been attested to many times by many geneticists, that these are "insufficient for evolutionary analyses" (Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman , Cavalli-Sforza et al. Consequently, the primary defect of Arnaiz-Villena's studies is that they relied mostly on one and in some cases two genetic markers. Allele and haplotype frequencies for HLA loci in various ethnic groups. Genetic diversity of HLA: Functional and medical implication.
The abuse of scientific methods has earned Arnaiz-Villena's research a citation in a genetics textbook as an example of arbitrary interpretation and a deletion of one of his papers from the scientific literature. GENETICS Studies that Claim the Opposite Arnaiz-Villena Contradicts his Conclusions The Studies that Copied Arnaiz-Villena Arnaiz-Villena's Faulty Methodology i.