If one has a molecule which has coordinate covalent bonds - that is, both electrons for the bond are provided by one atom - how is hybridization calculated?
For the atom providing the electrons, I believe the bond counts as an unshared pair of electrons, but does it affect the hybridization of the receiving atom? As an example: I believe sulfuric acid, HI believe once the bond has been formed, it is treated like any other covalent bond.
It doesn't matter where the electrons came from; they are shared between the atoms the same as if it is a coordinate covalent bond, a "normal" bond, or from some sort of electrochemistry.
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--Bennybp (talk) , 17 July 2008 (UTC)Okay, that makes sense.
But are the bonds double (in which case sulfur would need an expanded octet) or coordinate covalent?
In my high school chem class they told us it would be coordinate covalent, but are they dumbing it down for simplified chem 1 purposes?
And if it's coordinate covalent, does that change things? Flaming Silmaril (talk) , 17 July 2008 (UTC) Hybridization schemes involving d orbitals are also possible.
They are important for elements in the third and succeeding rows of the periodic table.
Although the elements of the third row do not possess occupied 3d orbitals in their ground electronic configurations, the 3d orbitals of phosphorus, sulphur and chlorine are low enough in energy that promoted configurations involving the 3d orbitals may be reasonably postulated to account for the binding in compounds of these elements.
One consequence of the "availability" of the 3d orbitals is that there are many exceptions to the octet rule in compounds of the third row elements The hybridisation on O is difficult - for the OH oxygens you can expect sp3 (as in water), for the =O oxygens you might expect that the double bond be provided by a p orbital - this means that the remainder of the orbitals can form sp2 or (sp and p).
The S=O bonds can be considered to be dative from S to O or as a single bond sharing one electron each from S and O with O supplying a further dative bonding pair to S forming the double bond and expanding the S octet. 1 is unlikely because of the +2 charge, 2 is more likely because the S=O bonds are shown to be quite strong, for that reason the singly bonded form 3 is unlikely. Hope that explains something.87.1 (talk) , 17 July 2008 (UTC) Ah, see the picture to the right.
1,2 and 3 are all valid structures, 1 shows a polar covalent bond, 2 shows the double bonds , 3 shows the dative bonding form. You are correct - sulfur contains an expanded octet - two double bonds, two single bonds, for a grand total of 12 valence electrons.