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At mid-2012, 203 GWe was on line with 20.5 GWe having been added in 12 months. The government's 12th five-year plan for 2012-17 is targeting the addition of 94 GWe over the period, costing 7 billion.Three quarters of this would be coal- or lignite-fired, and only 3.4 GWe nuclear, including two imported 1000 MWe units planned at one site and two indigenous 700 MWe units at another.By 2032 total installed capacity of 700 GWe is planned to meet 7-9% GDP growth, and this was to include 63 GWe nuclear.

Overall transmission and distribution losses have been put at 26% by the Power Engineers Society.

Gross generation in 2013 comprised 697 TWh from black coal, 170 TWh from brown coal, 65 TWh from gas, 23 TWh from oil, 34 TWh from nuclear, 142 TWh from hydro and 80 TWh from other renewables.

Coal provides almost three-quarters of the electricity at present, but reserves are effectively limited* – in 2013, 159 million tonnes was imported, and 533 million tonnes produced domestically.

The per capita electricity consumption figure is expected to double by 2020, with 6.3% annual growth, and reach 5000-6000 k Wh by 2050, requiring about 8000 TWh/yr then.

There is an acute demand for more reliable power supplies.

One-third of the population is not connected to any grid.

* Quoted resources are 293 billion tonnes, but much of this is in forested areas of eastern India – Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, and West Bengal.

While the first three of these are the main producing states, nevertheless permission to mine is problematical and infrastructure limited.

India’s primary energy consumption more than doubled between 19 to nearly 25,000 PJ.

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